A rational number can be represented in the form of a/b, where a and b are integers, and b is not zero 
a/b is called a fraction, where a is the numerator of the fraction and b is the denominator of the fraction.

Two fraction are said to be equivalent if they have the same value but different forms.

For example, 2/3, 4/6, 6/9.

We denote two equivalent fractions by writing an equal sign between them, 2/3 = 4/6 = 6/9

Two fractions are equivalent, if their cross products are equal.






Addition and subtraction of fractions





The least common denominator, or LCD 
Example 1: 

Solution 
The denominators are factored as : 15 = 3 × 5 and 6 = 2 × 3 
The prime factors are 3, 5, 2, and therefore the LCD of the fractions is 3 × 5 × 2 = 30


Example 2: 

Solution 
Writing the denominators in factored form, 18 = 3 × 3 × 2 = 3^{2} × 2 and 27 = 3 × 3 × 3 = 3^{3}

so that, the LCD of the fractions is 3^{3} × 2 = 54


Multiplication and Division of Fractions


